understanding a films ideology typically involves analyzing how form and style create meaning
19—Bottom of cliff. Bill on ground—apparently badly hurt.
20—Top of cliff—Lottie cautiously approaches the edge—looks over.
21—Bottom of cliff—Bill hears Lottie—looks up—calls.
22—Top of cliff—Lottie rises—in despair—undecided—has an idea, runs out of scene.
23—Cliff near No. 20—Horses (Bill’s and Lottie’s) picketed—Lottie runs in—snatches lariat from the pommel of Bill’s saddle—runs out—
24—Top of cliff—Lottie runs in with lariat—drops end over cliff.
25—Bottom of cliff—lariat comes into picture from above. Bill seizes—starts to put under arms.
26—Top of cliff—close-up of Lottie watching Bill—her face shows intense anxiety.
27—Bottom of cliff—Bill now has lariat under arms—gives signal—rises slowly out of scene.
28—Top of cliff—Lottie braced-pulling on rope—strain almost too much for her—stops—breathing heavily—afraid she cannot hold on.
29—Flash [brief shot] of Bill, suspended by rope, hanging in the air—shoot out to get clear sky, or suggestion of great height.
30—Top of cliff—Lottie rallies—fresh determination—lets go rope to spit on her hands—rope whips out of scene—Lottie realizes.
31—Bottom of cliff—Dummy dropped into scene—cut.
32—Top of cliff—Lottie looks down—calls—
33—Bottom of cliff—Bill lying there—dead.
34—Top of cliff—Lottie realizes it is all over—starts for home.
In the course of answering these key questions we had to nail down some concepts. We weren’t discussing “the industry,” which includes not only production but also distribution and exhibition. We discussed instead what we called the mode of production, particular strategies for organizing work on a wide scale. Similarly, we took “style” to include features of both narrative form and cinematic technique. This is because we were discussing a “group style.” Art historians discussing Impressionism would include not only techniques of paint handling but typical subjects and iconography as part of the general Impressionist style.
The mental activity of viewers is typically inaccessible to film theorists (except through introspection; Brown, 2015), but a key piece of physical evidence that does exist is how viewers move their eyes on the screen. Furthermore, we can assess their film understanding through their verbal responses to questions. To what extent do film viewers’ eye movements and measured film comprehension support either Spielberg’s belief that he has absolute control over viewers’ gaze and comprehension of a film, or contemporary film theories’ and Tarantino’s assertion that each viewer sees and understands a different film? Empirical disciplines, such as cognitive science, can play a role in exploring the insights of filmmakers and in helping to resolve this debate (Bortolussi & Dixon, 2003; Sanford & Emmott, 2012). In doing so, we can develop and refine theories of how we make sense of media and the role of eye movements in that process.
One possible reason for the modest relationship between film comprehension and eye movements during film viewing is that there is often a delay in top-down effects when the scene is not known before onset (Carmi & Itti, 2006; Smith & Mital, 2013). The Touch of Evil clip was chosen in part because it doesn’t introduce a new shot every 2–3 seconds, but it may be that the introduction of new information due to the camera continuously tracking in the shot creates a similar effect of keeping the viewer in an early stage of processing that relies more on bottom-up processing. While it is now well known that, when viewing static scene images, there are immediate top-down effects on eye movements (e.g., the first saccade in a visual search task; Eckstein et al., 2006; Ehinger, Hidalgo-Sotelo, Torralba, & Oliva, 2009; Torralba et al., 2006), the same has not been found when viewing dynamic scenes, namely film and video. Instead, when viewing video with no prior knowledge of its content, top-down effects on attention have been found to have a delayed onset of 2–3 seconds, which has largely been explained as being due to the overwhelming attentional capture by motion during that early time period (Carmi & Itti, 2006; Smith & Mital, 2013). Further work is needed to test the differences between task-specific and comprehension-based differences in top-down effects on visual attention when viewing film and video.
8 Imagine the incongruity of a dissolve into a shot of a T. Rex chomping into a jeep.
The complexity of this function might seem outrageous for a regression line. What theoretically legitimizes it is that it can fit seven points of interest—five that could be local maxima or minima and two endpoints. Indeed, following narrative theory, I wished to fit seven points that might be spread over the space defined by shot duration and by the runtime—the two endpoints, the very beginning and the very end of the movies or Bins 1 and 100; and as many as five points suggested by Robert Towne. These include the three in the vicinity of Bins 25, 50, and 75, marking potential boundaries among the four acts; and two floating plot points of articulation, one for a possible inciting incident (roughly between Bins 10 and 20) and the other for the end at the beginning of the epilog (roughly between Bins 95 and 100). Corroborating the use of this multiparameter characterization, the plotted function is the best polynomial fit to the data, adjusted R 2 = .74, F(6, 93) = 48.4, p 2 s = .57, .57, .39, .25, and .24 for the fifth-order polynomial on down).
Film may include: Stranger Than Paradise, The Only Lovers Left Alive, Do the Right Thing, Bamboozled, Near Dark, The Hurt Locker, Slacker, and Boyhood.
Global Road Films
The work that has resulted from these various explorations into the Bruce Lee phenomenon are all fascinating, but they all “overstep or miss the significance and ramifications of the cinematic dimension of Lee’s popular cultural impact” (Bowman, 2010a: 14). Ironically, this point, made by Paul Bowman in his book Theorizing Bruce Lee: Film-Fantasy-Fighting-Philosophy, is not, as one might have hoped, an indication of his personal position vis-à-vis medium specificity. Bowman is currently the preeminent academic Bruce Lee scholar, having written numerous journal articles and book chapters on Lee in addition to his full-length book study. His work to gain acceptance for Lee as a topic for academic study is admirable and his insights on Lee in relation to various philosophical, psychoanalytic, and sociopolitical viewpoints add new shades to Lee’s status as a cultural icon, but he has done nothing to spotlight Lee’s position as a film artist. In fact, for all of his claims regarding Lee’s cinematic import, Bowman has situated himself as a serious impediment to a critical acceptance of Lee’s film work as aesthetically and thematically significant. For someone purporting to be the lone, noble Sisyphus of academia, refusing to give up on pushing the Bruce Lee boulder, he comes off as affrontingly disingenuous and entirely disinterested in Lee’s film work. 
Johnston, Will and Andrew Staton. The Big Boss . Dir. Lo Wei. Hong Kong Legends, 1971. DVD. Platinum Edition. 2006. Audio Commentary.